because it describes a belief in one substance, can be used in two
To describe the view that only matter, or the physical body, exist.
• To describe the view that only mind, or spirit, exist.
first option is called "materialism" or "physicalism";
the second option is called "idealism" (which you may
remember from our discussion of Berkeley in TOK).
few people accept the idealist viewpoint, materialism is quite a
widely held view. The main task for the materialist, however, is
to show that consciousness and the mind can be accounted for in
terms of properties of matter and the functioning of a physical
substance: the brain.